Meadow Hawkweed Complex
Meadow Hawkweed Complex

Asteraceae or Sunflower Family
Hieracium pratense, H. floribundum, H. piloselloides

IDENTIFICATION:
Growth Habit:
Creeping perennials that contain a milky sap.
Leaves: Basal rosettes have hairy, narrow, spatula-shaped leaves that are dark green above and light green below.
Stems: One rosette can produce 10 to 25 flowering stems that can grow up to 3 feet tall. Stems have short, stiff hairs, and may have one to three small, clasping leaves below the midpoint of the stem.
Flowers: Five to thirty bright yellow, dandelion-like flowers make up the inflorescence. Flowers by mid-June and seeds by early August.
Roots: Shallow, fibrous, and creeping. One flowering plant can produce 4 to 12 leafy stolons that can reach a length of 4 to 12 inches. Vigorous stolon growth quickly expands the colony, forming dense patches that can have as many as 3,200 plants per square yard.
Seeds: Viable up to 7 years.
Reproduction: By seeds, rhizomes, stolons, and adventitious root buds. Reproduces asexually.
Habitat: Moist pastures, forest meadows, abandoned fields, clearcuts, and roadsides.

MANAGEMENT OPTIONS:
Handpulling: 
Handpulling will only be effective on small infestations when rosettes and the majority of the stolons are removed repeatedly and consistently throughout the growing season.
Mowing: Mowing is not an effective method of control for hawkweed because it grows below the level of most mower blades. Mowing flowerheads only may reduce seed production but also stimulates vegetative spread.
Biological Control: N/A
Grazing: Grazing hawkweed has a similar effect as mowing. While flowers may be grazed, the majority of the plant grows too low to the ground to be utilized as forage, therefore stimulating vegetative spread. Grazing may also have a negative effect on desirable species, which will also increase the competitiveness of hawkweed. 
Herbicides: The following herbicides have been labelled for the control of the meadow hawkweed complex. Always consult product labels and read them carefully to ensure correct species/land management usage and chemical application.

Trade Name: Active Ingredients:   Rate:   Efficacy:   Comments: 
 Forefront R&P aminopyralid + 2,4-D  2-2.5 pts/acre  most effective if used from bolting stage to bud stage  Can be applied to waters edge; 
cannot be used in landscaped areas and current or future vegetable gardens, 
mulch or manure from treated areas should not be applied to vegetable gardens or composted for vegetable gardens 
 Milestone aminopyralid  4-6 oz/acre  most effective if used from bolting stage to bud stage   Can be applied to waters edge; 
cannot be used in landscaped areas and current or future vegetable gardens, 
mulch or manure from treated areas should not be applied to vegetable gardens or composted for vegetable gardens   
 Transline clopyralid  1.5 pts/acre  most effective if used from bolting stage to bud stage   Do not apply to shallow groundwater areas 
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