Scrophulariaceae or Figwort Family
Other Common Names: Butter-and-eggs or Jacob's Ladder.
Growth Habit: Perennial, grows 8 to 24 inches tall.
Leaves: Numerous, alternate, long, narrow leaves pointed at both ends. Pale green to gray-green color and are individually connected to the stem.
Stems: Flowers grow on short stalks in dense clusters at the top of stems.
Flowers: Snapdragon yellow flowers with an orange throat and a downward-pointing yellow spur 1 inch long.
Roots: Roots can penetrate into the soil 3 feet or more while lateral roots can be several yards long.
Seeds: Produces 8,700 seeds per plant, viable up to 10 years.
Reproduction: By seeds and rhizomes. Most vegetative reproduction is associated with lateral roots.
Habitat: Wide variety of conditions due to its high genetic variability. Disturbed, open habitats.
Handpulling: This is not an effective control method for yellow toadflax
Mowing: Mowing is not an effective method of control for yellow toadflax, though it can be used to limit seed production if done just before flowering.
Biological Control: There have been six bio-control agents released in the U.S. for the control of toadflaxes. While none have proven to be the best fit for yellow toadflax (they tend to be more effective on Dalmatian toadflax), they do affect the overall fitness of a yellow toadflax infestation if present. They should definitely be considered as a part of an integrated approach to the management of yellow toadflax.
Grazing: Grazing is not recommended as a method of control for the yellow toadflax, as livestock generally tend to avoid it as a type of forage.
Herbicide: There are a number of herbicides that have been used to control yellow toadflax if re-applied annually for up to three years. Yellow toadflax recovers very well from single treatments, so expect a long-term management regime for effective control. The following herbicides are labelled for the control of yellow toadflax. Always consult product labels and read them carefully to ensure correct species/land management usage and chemical application.
|Trade Name:||Active Ingredient:||Rate:||Efficacy:||Comments:|
|Plateau||imazapic||12 oz/acre||Most effective if applied in late fall after hard frost.||Results may be inconsistent; be sure to use a methylated seed oil surfactant|
|Escort||metsulfuron||1.5 oz/acre||Can control toadflax for up to 3 years if applied in fall or spring.||Cannot be used near wells, surface water or shallow ground water|
|Tordon 22k||picloram||1-2 qts/acre||Best applied in spring up to early bloom.||Cannot use near surface water, shallow water, landscaped areas and current or future vegetable gardens
(Restricted Herbicide - need an applicator license to use.)